Five Rivers Reserve (70)

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Site name: Five Rivers Reserve
Site number: 70
Point numbers: 277 (Five Rivers Dry A), 279 ( Five Rivers Wet A), 278 ( Five Rivers Dry B), 280 ( Five Rivers Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: Tasmanian Land Conservancy
Site location: Central Tasmanian Highlands
Latitude: -42.104
Longitude: 146.502
Site description: The Tasmanian Land Conservancy’s Fiver Rivers Reserve protects 11000 hectares of open grassland valleys, old-growth forests and woodlands, native grasslands, endangered sphagnum moss beds, and five river systems: the Nive, Serpentine, Pine, Little Pine and Little Rivers. Five Rivers Reserve provides habitat for a number of endangered species endemic to Tasmania.

The site’s dry sensors are established in tall eucalypt forest dominated by Alpine Ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) and Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora). Fiver Rivers Reserve’s wet sensors are located along the banks of the Nive River among Alpine Ash and Cider Gum (Eucalyptus gunnii) open forest and woodland.

Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt TERN SuperSite (62)

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Site name: Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt TERN SuperSite
Site number: 62
Point numbers: 245 (Wombat Dry A), 246 (Wombat Wet A), 247 (Wombat Dry B), 248 (Wombat Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: The University of Melbourne, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: Wombat State Forest, Victoria
Latitude: -37.420
Longitude: 144.100
Site description: The Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt SuperSite is located in the Wombat State Forest (near Ballarat) and managed by the University of Melbourne.

Wombat State Forest is dominated by Messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua), Broad-leaf Peppermint (Eucalyptus dives), Narrow-leaf Peppermint (Eucalyptus radiata), Manna Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) and Candlebark (Eucalyptus rubida). Swamp Gum (Eucalyptus ovata) and Yarra Gum (Eucalyptus yarraensis) are also present.

The native fauna of Wombat State Forest consists of mammals, including the Greater Glider (Petauroides volans), reptiles, amphibians and birds. Threatened bird species such as the Great Egret, Grey Goshawk, Australian Masked Owl and Powerful Owl, are found in the area.

The on-site OzFlux eddy covariance tower monitors ecosystem fluxes of energy, water and carbon dioxide above-ground, while below-ground measurements are obtained using six fully automated Green House Gas chambers that are connected to a Fourier Transformed Infrared gas analysis system.

Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt TERN SuperSite (60)

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Site name: Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt TERN SuperSite
Site number: 60
Point numbers: 237 (Tumbarumba Dry A), 238 (Tumbarumba Wet A), 239 (Tumbarumba Dry B), 240 (Tumbarumba Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: CSIRO, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: Bago State Forest, New South Wales
Latitude: -35.650
Longitude: 148.100
Site description: Tumbarumba, in the Bago State Forest is one of the few southern hemisphere sites that has provided records for longer than a decade of the weather, climate, net uptake of CO2 and loss of water via evapotranspiration. Bago is a managed, open wet sclerophyll eucalyptus forest, and the partnership between OzFlux and the Australian SuperSite Network is expected to improve understanding of how logging practices affect the amount of carbon and water entering, stored in and leaving the forest, and how these factors in turn influence the ecosystem as a whole.

Apart from continuously measuring the exchanges of carbon dioxide and water vapour between the forest and the atmosphere, Tumbarumba has been the site of various intensive measurement campaigns to improve our understanding on how airflow, terrain and forest structure affect the way the ecosystem takes up and releases carbon and uses water. As part of this effort CSIRO has carried out independent measurements of carbon pools, stocks and turnover rates. These measurements, along with atmospheric fluxes, have been used to improve the surface–vegetation–atmospheric–transfer (SVAT) models. SVAT models describe how energy, carbon and water are exchanged between land and atmosphere, and Tumbarumba has played a major role in improving SVAT modelling in Australia over the last decade.

Tumbarumba has also been a key site for measuring the important effects that vegetation has on the lower atmosphere, including the exchange of heat, and the production of particles and chemical species that are highly reactive and contribute to the formation of aerosols. A large international campaign provided measurements of the characteristics and dynamics of atmospheric ions, aerosol particles, and their precursors.

Detailed observations on leaf area index taken from both hemispherical photography and forest structure measurements using Echidna have been used to evaluate plant growth and canopy cover. Echidna is a ground-based laser that scans a full hemisphere from a point on the forest floor and is used for ecological assessment and to estimate wood volume and forest growth. This is complemented by data on above-ground biomass taken through airborne LIDAR surveys carried out by AusCover. The LIDAR data, in combination with hyperspectral data, offer the means to look at forest disturbance after harvest.

Cumberland Plain TERN SuperSite (53)

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Site name: Cumberland Plain TERN SuperSite
Site number: 53
Point numbers: 209 (Cumberland Dry A), 210 (Cumberland Wet A), 211 (Cumberland Dry B), 212 (Cumberland Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: University of Western Sydney, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: University of Western Sydney Hawkesbury campus, Richmond, New South Wales
Latitude: -33.700
Longitude: 150.700
Site description: Cumberland Plain SuperSite is located in remnant Eucalyptus woodland in the Cumberland Plain, at the University of Western Sydney’s Hawkesbury campus in Richmond, New South Wales. Associated research extends into the Blue Mountains ecoregion. These sclerophyll woodlands occur on nutrient-poor alluvium deposited by the Nepean River from sandstone and shale bedrock in the Blue Mountains. Despite this they support high regional biodiversity and endemic biota.

Cumberland Plain woodland is a critically endangered ecological community found only in the Sydney Basin Bioregion. It faces major pressures including invasive weeds, altered fire regimes, Western Sydney’s urban development, conversion to agriculture, and extreme climate events.

Barren Grounds Nature Reserve (1)

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Site name: Barren Grounds Nature Reserve
Site number: 1
Point numbers: 1 (BARREN GROUNDS Dry A), 2 (BARREN GROUNDS Wet A), 3 (BARREN GROUNDS Dry B), 4 ( BARREN GROUNDS Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service
Site location: Southern New South Wales
Latitude: -34.679
Longitude: 150.704
Site description: Barren Grounds Nature Reserve is found in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales on the south-easterly spur of the Illawarra Range. The site is almost completely encircled by rocky cliffs and protects one of only four large areas of heath on the NSW South Coast. Barren Grounds is considered a hanging swamp plateau due to the extensive areas of heath and swamp found at elevation, and the high rates of precipitation. Dominant vegetation includes Red Bloodwood (Corymbia gummifera), Silver-top Ash (Eucalyptus sieberi), Dwarf Apple (Angophora hispida), Scrub Sheoak (Allocasuarina distyla), Stiff-leaf Wattle (Acacia obtusifolia), Heath Banksia (Banksia ericifolia), Old Man Banksia (Banksia serrata), Mountain Devil (Lambertia formosa), Broad-leafed Drumstick (Isopogon anemonifolius) and Native Fuchsia (Epacris longiflora).

Barren Grounds serves as important habitat for many plant and animal species, and is well known as an important bird area. Approximately 180 bird species can be found at Barren Grounds, including Honeyeaters, Southern Emu Wrens, Lyrebirds, Crimson Rosellas, and many threatened taxa such as the Eastern Ground Parrot and Eastern Bristlebird. The large numbers of audible species makes Barren Grounds Nature Reserve ideal for long-term ecoacoustic monitoring.

Samford Ecological Research Facility (64)

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Site name: Samford Ecological Research Facility (South-East Queensland Peri-Urban Samford)
Site number: 64
Point numbers: 253 (SERF Dry A), 254 (SERF Wet A), 255 (SERF Dry B), 256 (SERF Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: Queensland University of Technology, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: South-East Queensland
Latitude: -27.388
Longitude: 152.878
Site description: The Samford Ecological Research Facility (SERF) is a 51 hectare property located in subtropical Queensland, hosting the South-East Queensland Peri-Urban TERN SuperSite. SERF is situated in a broadly fragmented landscape, shaped by historical cattle grazing, logging and agriculture, and recent residential development. The site protects threatened and endangered ecosystems within a mosaic of remnant native vegetation and cleared pasture.

The site’s two dry acoustic sensors are located in open eucalypt woodland growing on soils derived from weathered granite. These forests are dominated by Pink Bloodwood (Corymbia intermedia), Grey Ironbark (Eucalyptus siderophloia), Swamp Box (Lophostemon suaveolens), and Forest Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis).

SERF’s two wet acoustic sensors are located in notophyll vine forest on alluvial plains. This vegetation community has been heavily cleared over the past 150 years, with SERF protecting one of the few remaining intact examples growing along the banks of Samford Creek. Dominant vine forest species include Native Elm (Aphananthe philippinensis),White Kamala(Mallotus discolor), White Cedar (Melia azedarach), Bunya Pine (Araucaria bidwillii), and Silky Oak (Grevillea robusta).

Both vegetation communities are home to a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate species, many of which are audible and readily detected by acoustic sensors.