Fowlers Gap Arid Zone Research Station (24)

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Site name: Fowlers Gap Arid Zone Research Station
Site number: 24
Point numbers: 93 (FOWLERS GAP Dry A), 94 (FOWLERS GAP Wet A), 95 (FOWLERS GAP Dry B), 96 (FOWLERS GAP Wet B)
Ecoregion: Deserts and xeric shrublands
Participant and site owner: University of New South Wales, Fowlers Gap Arid Zone Research Station
Site location: Western New South Wales
Latitude: -31.09
Longitude: 141.71
Site description: Fowlers Gap Arid Zone Research Station is located in western New South Wales, about 110 km to the north of Broken Hill. The research station of around 39,000 hectares straddles the Barrier Range and has an arid climate with <250 mm rainfall annually. The Research Station has been established for over 50 years (since 1966) and been the site of long-term research projects focused on kangaroos, arid zone vegetation and birds (particularly the Zebra Finch and Chestnut-crowned Babbler). The barrier ranges are composed largely of sandstone, while the flat country on the eastern side of the research station is scalded flats of loamy sands and clays (site A is in the former and site B in the latter country). Chenopod shrubs dominate in both areas, including Saltbush (Atriplex sp.), Blue Bush (Maireana sp.), and Copperburrs (Sclerolaena sp.). In the flat country major river channels are dominated by River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), with minor drainage lines holding stands of Prickly Wattle (Acacia victoriae) and Dead Finish (Acacia tetragonophylla).

The classic pattern of arid zone ecology, with primary productivity determined by unpredictable rains (both spatially and temporally) make Fowlers Gap an ideal location for long-term ecoacoustic monitoring, with dramatic changes in both the abundance and community structure of animals and plants across years.

Five Rivers Reserve (70)

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Site name: Five Rivers Reserve
Site number: 70
Point numbers: 277 (Five Rivers Dry A), 279 ( Five Rivers Wet A), 278 ( Five Rivers Dry B), 280 ( Five Rivers Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: Tasmanian Land Conservancy
Site location: Central Tasmanian Highlands
Latitude: -42.104
Longitude: 146.502
Site description: The Tasmanian Land Conservancy’s Fiver Rivers Reserve protects 11000 hectares of open grassland valleys, old-growth forests and woodlands, native grasslands, endangered sphagnum moss beds, and five river systems: the Nive, Serpentine, Pine, Little Pine and Little Rivers. Five Rivers Reserve provides habitat for a number of endangered species endemic to Tasmania.

The site’s dry sensors are established in tall eucalypt forest dominated by Alpine Ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) and Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora). Fiver Rivers Reserve’s wet sensors are located along the banks of the Nive River among Alpine Ash and Cider Gum (Eucalyptus gunnii) open forest and woodland.

Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt TERN SuperSite (62)

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Site name: Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt TERN SuperSite
Site number: 62
Point numbers: 245 (Wombat Dry A), 246 (Wombat Wet A), 247 (Wombat Dry B), 248 (Wombat Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: The University of Melbourne, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: Wombat State Forest, Victoria
Latitude: -37.420
Longitude: 144.100
Site description: The Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt SuperSite is located in the Wombat State Forest (near Ballarat) and managed by the University of Melbourne.

Wombat State Forest is dominated by Messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua), Broad-leaf Peppermint (Eucalyptus dives), Narrow-leaf Peppermint (Eucalyptus radiata), Manna Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) and Candlebark (Eucalyptus rubida). Swamp Gum (Eucalyptus ovata) and Yarra Gum (Eucalyptus yarraensis) are also present.

The native fauna of Wombat State Forest consists of mammals, including the Greater Glider (Petauroides volans), reptiles, amphibians and birds. Threatened bird species such as the Great Egret, Grey Goshawk, Australian Masked Owl and Powerful Owl, are found in the area.

The on-site OzFlux eddy covariance tower monitors ecosystem fluxes of energy, water and carbon dioxide above-ground, while below-ground measurements are obtained using six fully automated Green House Gas chambers that are connected to a Fourier Transformed Infrared gas analysis system.

Great Western Woodlands TERN SuperSite (58)

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Site name: Great Western Woodlands TERN SuperSite
Site number: 58
Point numbers: 229 (GWW Dry A), 230 (GWW Wet A), 231 (GWW Dry B), 232 (GWW Wet B)
Ecoregion: Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrubs
Participant and site owner: CSIRO, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: South Western Australia
Latitude: -30.125
Longitude: 120.375
Site description: The Great Western Woodlands (GWW) comprises a 16-million hectare mosaic of temperate woodland, heathland and mallee vegetation in south-west Western Australia. It is the largest remaining intact temperate or ‘Mediterranean’ woodland in the world and is unique in being able to survive on as little as 250 mm annual rainfall. The SuperSite site comprises a mosaic of temperate woodland, heathland and Mallee vegetation.

The region has remained relatively intact since European settlement, owing to the variable rainfall and lack of readily accessible groundwater. Other temperate woodlands around the world have become highly fragmented and degraded through agricultural use.

The GWW thus provides a unique opportunity to study how semi-arid woodland ecosystems function at site and landscape scales, and how naturally functioning, intact ecosystems can adapt to climate change. The woodlands also offer significant potential to inform climate-resilient restoration of the Western Australian wheatbelt.

Research at GWW is managed by CSIRO in collaboration with the Department of Parks and Wildlife WA, land managers and Traditional Owners.

Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt TERN SuperSite (60)

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Site name: Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt TERN SuperSite
Site number: 60
Point numbers: 237 (Tumbarumba Dry A), 238 (Tumbarumba Wet A), 239 (Tumbarumba Dry B), 240 (Tumbarumba Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: CSIRO, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: Bago State Forest, New South Wales
Latitude: -35.650
Longitude: 148.100
Site description: Tumbarumba, in the Bago State Forest is one of the few southern hemisphere sites that has provided records for longer than a decade of the weather, climate, net uptake of CO2 and loss of water via evapotranspiration. Bago is a managed, open wet sclerophyll eucalyptus forest, and the partnership between OzFlux and the Australian SuperSite Network is expected to improve understanding of how logging practices affect the amount of carbon and water entering, stored in and leaving the forest, and how these factors in turn influence the ecosystem as a whole.

Apart from continuously measuring the exchanges of carbon dioxide and water vapour between the forest and the atmosphere, Tumbarumba has been the site of various intensive measurement campaigns to improve our understanding on how airflow, terrain and forest structure affect the way the ecosystem takes up and releases carbon and uses water. As part of this effort CSIRO has carried out independent measurements of carbon pools, stocks and turnover rates. These measurements, along with atmospheric fluxes, have been used to improve the surface–vegetation–atmospheric–transfer (SVAT) models. SVAT models describe how energy, carbon and water are exchanged between land and atmosphere, and Tumbarumba has played a major role in improving SVAT modelling in Australia over the last decade.

Tumbarumba has also been a key site for measuring the important effects that vegetation has on the lower atmosphere, including the exchange of heat, and the production of particles and chemical species that are highly reactive and contribute to the formation of aerosols. A large international campaign provided measurements of the characteristics and dynamics of atmospheric ions, aerosol particles, and their precursors.

Detailed observations on leaf area index taken from both hemispherical photography and forest structure measurements using Echidna have been used to evaluate plant growth and canopy cover. Echidna is a ground-based laser that scans a full hemisphere from a point on the forest floor and is used for ecological assessment and to estimate wood volume and forest growth. This is complemented by data on above-ground biomass taken through airborne LIDAR surveys carried out by AusCover. The LIDAR data, in combination with hyperspectral data, offer the means to look at forest disturbance after harvest.

Gingin Banksia Woodland TERN SuperSite (57)

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Site name: Gingin Banksia Woodland TERN SuperSite
Site number: 57
Point numbers: 225 (Gingin Dry A), 226 (Gingin Wet A), 227 (Gingin Dry B), 228 (Gingin Wet B)
Ecoregion: Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrubs
Participant and site owner: Edith Cowan University, The University of Western Australia, CSIRO, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: South Western Australia
Latitude: -31.376
Longitude: 115.714
Site description: Gingin Banksia Woodland SuperSite is located on the Swan Coastal Plain, approximately 10 km southwest of Gingin, near Perth, Western Australia, sited on land traditionally owned by the Yued group of the Noongar people. The site has an elevation of 51 m and 2 km from the University of Western Australia International Gravity Wave Observatory.

The Gingin Banksia Woodland SuperSite is located in a natural woodland of high species diversity (overstorey dominated by Banksia spp.) that overlays the Gnangara groundwater mound, Perth’s most important groundwater resource. The mean annual precipitation is 641mm for this coastal heath woodland. The overstorey is dominated by Banksia spp. mainly B. menziesii, B. attenuata, and B. grandis with a height of around 7 m and leaf area index of about 0.8. There are occasional stands of eucalypts and acacia that reach to 10 m and have a denser foliage cover.

There are many former wetlands dotted around the woodland, most of which were inundated all winter and some had permanent water 30 years ago. The water table has now fallen below the base of these systems and they are disconnected and are no longer permanently wet. The fine sediments, sometimes diatomaceous, hold water and they have perched water tables each winter. There is a natural progression of species accompanying this process as they gradually become more dominated by more xeric species.

The soils are mainly Podosol sands, with low moisture holding capacity. Field capacity typically about 8 to 10%, and in summer these generally hold less than 2% moisture. The water table is at about 8.5 m below the surface, and a WA Dept of water long-term monitoring piezometer is near the base of the OzFlux tower.

Calperum Mallee TERN SuperSite (56)

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Site name: Calperum Mallee TERN SuperSite
Site number: 56
Point numbers: 221 (Calperum Dry A), 222 (Calperum Wet A), 223 (Calperum Dry B), 224 (Calperum Wet B)
Ecoregion: Deserts and xeric shrublands
Participant and site owner: The University of Adelaide, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: River Murray floodplains on Calperum Station, near Renmark South Australia
Latitude: -29.383
Longitude: 140.728
Site description: The Calperum Mallee TERN SuperSite is in the mallee semi-arid ecosystem, fringing the River Murray floodplains on Calperum Station, near Renmark South Australia. The area comprises undulating mallee woodlands and riverine vegetation that fringes the River. All areas are in the process of recovering from extensive grazing.

The Calperum Mallee TERN SuperSite has established and reinforced research infrastructure that can measure and monitor the condition of a nationally iconic region. This SuperSite is part of the Australian Flux Network Project and will build on and strengthen existing ecosystem monitoring, grazing and floodplain restoration experiments and link with in-stream water quantity and quality measurements and is an OzFlux energy, carbon and water monitoring site.

The SuperSite is investigating fluxes of water vapour and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere, upper soil layers and groundwater as well as monitoring the changes in vegetation and dependent biota associated with the different ecosystems of the site.

Boyagin Wandoo Woodland TERN SuperSite (55)

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Site name: Boyagin Wandoo Woodland TERN SuperSite
Site number: 55
Point numbers: 217 (Boyagin Dry A), 218 (Boyagin Wet A), 219 (Boyagin Dry B), 220 (Boyagin Wet B)
Ecoregion: Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrubs
Participant and site owner: University of Western Australia, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: South Western Australia
Latitude: -32.471
Longitude: 116.863
Site description: The Boyagin Wandoo Woodland SuperSite was established in September 2017 by the University of Western Australia. Located in the Boyagin Nature Reserve, approximately 12 km west of Pingelly, Western Australia the SuperSite monitoring activities complement the Avon River Catchment Critical Zone Observatory at the UWA Future Farm in Pingelly that focusses on managed landscapes (rotational dryland wheat cropping and grazing pastures for sheep). The climate is Semi-arid (Dry) Warm Mediterranean.

The site provides nationally consistent observations of vegetation dynamics, faunal biodiversity, micrometeorology (climate, radiation, fluxes of carbon and water), hydrology and biogeochemistry to examine the impacts of disturbance, climate on carbon stocks and Green House Gas emissions, and impacts on habitat quality via ongoing monitoring of vegetation structure and fauna. A wide range of ground based observations of vegetation structure and floristics is planned and all will link to remote sensing of fire and vegetation change over time. Measurements of carbon sequestration through time will be achieved via the TERN OzFlux instrumentation capable of directly measuring CO2, water use and surface energy properties (energy balance, reflectance).

Boyagin SuperSite is located in the Avon Wheatbelt (AW2-Re-juvenated Drainage subregion) and has a high density of rare and geographically restricted flora and supports populations of several marsupials subject to fox predation (Numbat, Quenda, Woylie, Tammar, Red-tailed Phascogale, Brushtail Possum) that have disappeared from most of the Australian or Western Australian mainland.

Cumberland Plain TERN SuperSite (53)

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Site name: Cumberland Plain TERN SuperSite
Site number: 53
Point numbers: 209 (Cumberland Dry A), 210 (Cumberland Wet A), 211 (Cumberland Dry B), 212 (Cumberland Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: University of Western Sydney, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: University of Western Sydney Hawkesbury campus, Richmond, New South Wales
Latitude: -33.700
Longitude: 150.700
Site description: Cumberland Plain SuperSite is located in remnant Eucalyptus woodland in the Cumberland Plain, at the University of Western Sydney’s Hawkesbury campus in Richmond, New South Wales. Associated research extends into the Blue Mountains ecoregion. These sclerophyll woodlands occur on nutrient-poor alluvium deposited by the Nepean River from sandstone and shale bedrock in the Blue Mountains. Despite this they support high regional biodiversity and endemic biota.

Cumberland Plain woodland is a critically endangered ecological community found only in the Sydney Basin Bioregion. It faces major pressures including invasive weeds, altered fire regimes, Western Sydney’s urban development, conversion to agriculture, and extreme climate events.

Litchfield Savanna TERN SuperSite (52)

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Site name: Litchfield Savanna TERN SuperSite
Site number: 52
Point numbers: 205 (Litchfield Dry A), 206 (Litchfield Wet A), 207 (Litchfield Dry B), 208 (Litchfield Wet B)
Ecoregion: Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrublands
Participant and site owner: Adelaide University, Australian Landscape Trust, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: Northern Territory
Latitude: -13.170
Longitude: 130.790
Site description: The Litchfield Savanna SuperSite represents high rainfall, frequently burnt, tropical savanna. At 1.9 million square kilometres, tropical savanna is the dominant ecosystem type across northern Australia. Understanding biogeochemical cycles, impacts of fire on sequestration, vegetation and fauna is a national priority.

The Litchfield Savanna TERN SuperSite is a 5 km x 5 km block of relatively uniform open-forest savanna inside Litchfield National Park, and about 80 km south of Darwin. In the Northern Territory, savanna ecosystems are largely intact in terms of tree cover, with only modest levels of land use change. Despite this, there is evidence of a loss of biodiversity, most likely due to shifts in fire regimes and a loss of patchiness in the landscape. Approximately 40% of the savanna burn every year and understanding fire impacts on fauna and flora is essential for effective land management.

Alice Mulga TERN SuperSite (54)

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Site name: Alice Mulga TERN SuperSite
Site number: 54
Point numbers: 213 (Alice Dry A), 214 ( Alice Wet A), 215 ( Alice Dry B), 216 ( Alice Wet B)
Ecoregion: Deserts and xeric shrublands
Participant and site owner: University of Technology Sydney, CSIRO, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: Pine Hill Cattle Station, Northern Territory
Latitude: -22.300
Longitude: 133.200
Site description: The Alice Mulga SuperSite is located on Pine Hill Cattle Station approximately 200 km north of Alice Springs, Northern Territory. It lies in the expansive arid and semi-arid portion of mainland Australia that receives less than 500 mm of annual rainfall. The site includes Mulga woodland, hummock grassland, and River Red Gum forest. The SuperSite Core 1 ha is located in a dense Mulga woodland (cover 70–80%).

Daintree Rainforest Observatory (50)

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Site name: Daintree Rainforest Observatory
Site number: 50
Point numbers: 197 (DRO Dry A), 198 (DRO Wet A), 199 (DRO Dry B), 200 (DRO Wet B)
Ecoregion: Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Participant and site owner: James Cook University, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: Far North Queensland
Latitude: -16.106
Longitude: 145.378
Site description: The Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO) is located 120 km north of Cairns on Cape Tribulation. The site hosts part of the Daintree Rainforest SuperSite for the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network .The DRO is comprised of long-term monitoring sites, a canopy crane and extensive researcher and teaching infrastructure. The DRO is situated adjacent to the World Heritage listed Daintree National Park, and home to many endemic tropical plant and animal species.

Barren Grounds Nature Reserve (1)

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Site name: Barren Grounds Nature Reserve
Site number: 1
Point numbers: 1 (BARREN GROUNDS Dry A), 2 (BARREN GROUNDS Wet A), 3 (BARREN GROUNDS Dry B), 4 ( BARREN GROUNDS Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service
Site location: Southern New South Wales
Latitude: -34.679
Longitude: 150.704
Site description: Barren Grounds Nature Reserve is found in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales on the south-easterly spur of the Illawarra Range. The site is almost completely encircled by rocky cliffs and protects one of only four large areas of heath on the NSW South Coast. Barren Grounds is considered a hanging swamp plateau due to the extensive areas of heath and swamp found at elevation, and the high rates of precipitation. Dominant vegetation includes Red Bloodwood (Corymbia gummifera), Silver-top Ash (Eucalyptus sieberi), Dwarf Apple (Angophora hispida), Scrub Sheoak (Allocasuarina distyla), Stiff-leaf Wattle (Acacia obtusifolia), Heath Banksia (Banksia ericifolia), Old Man Banksia (Banksia serrata), Mountain Devil (Lambertia formosa), Broad-leafed Drumstick (Isopogon anemonifolius) and Native Fuchsia (Epacris longiflora).

Barren Grounds serves as important habitat for many plant and animal species, and is well known as an important bird area. Approximately 180 bird species can be found at Barren Grounds, including Honeyeaters, Southern Emu Wrens, Lyrebirds, Crimson Rosellas, and many threatened taxa such as the Eastern Ground Parrot and Eastern Bristlebird. The large numbers of audible species makes Barren Grounds Nature Reserve ideal for long-term ecoacoustic monitoring.

Bowra (65)

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Site name: Bowra
Site number: 65
Point numbers: 257 (BOWRA Dry A), 258 (BOWRA Wet A), 259 (BOWRA Dry B), 260 (BOWRA Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands
Participant and site owner: Australian Wildlife Conservancy
Site location: South Western Queensland
Latitude: -27.987
Longitude: 145.609
Site description: Bowra is an Australian Wildlife Conservancy wildlife sanctuary located north-west of Cunnamulla. The property extends from the Warrego River floodplain in the east to a Mulga (Acacia aneura) dominated plateau in the west. The site receives intermittent, seasonal rainfall, and supports a mosaic of woodlands, shrublands, grasslands and riparian vegetation. Bowra provides breeding habitat and drought refuge for many semi-arid species, and is renowned for its bird diversity.

The dry sensors at Bowra are located in Mulga woodland. The wet sensors are located along an eastern tributary of the Warrego River.

Mitchell Grass Rangeland TERN SuperSite (59)

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Site name: Mitchell Grass Rangeland TERN SuperSite
Site number: 59
Point numbers: 233 (MITCH GRASS Dry A), 234 (MITCH GRASS Wet A), 235 (MITCH GRASS Dry B), 236 (MITCH GRASS Wet B)
Ecoregion: Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrublands
Participant and site owner: Queensland University of Technology, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: Western Queensland
Latitude: -23.523
Longitude: 144.311
Site description: The Mitchell Grass Rangeland site has been established near Longreach in Western Queensland. Mitchell Grass Rangeland is a TERN SuperSite managed by the Queensland University of Technology. The site is located on an actively grazed cattle and sheep property recently affiliated with the Longreach Pastoral College, the Queensland Department of Primary Industries Rosebank Research Station and several CSIRO research programs. Mitchell Grass Rangelands are defined by mostly treeless plains with occasional ridges, rivers and gorges. Curly Mitchell Grass (Astrebla lappacea), Bull Mitchell Grass (Astrebla squarrosa) and Hoop Mitchell Grass (Astrebla elymoides) are the dominant vegetation in the area. A low overstorey of Gidgee (Acacia cambagei) and other tree and shrub species may be found in some places.

The site’s two dry acoustic sensors are located on open grassy plains dominated by Mitchell Grass tussocks. The site’s two wet acoustic sensors are located along creek and drainage lines fringed with Coolabah (Eucalyptus coolabah) and River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis).

Samford Ecological Research Facility (64)

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Site name: Samford Ecological Research Facility (South-East Queensland Peri-Urban Samford)
Site number: 64
Point numbers: 253 (SERF Dry A), 254 (SERF Wet A), 255 (SERF Dry B), 256 (SERF Wet B)
Ecoregion: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Participant and site owner: Queensland University of Technology, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Site location: South-East Queensland
Latitude: -27.388
Longitude: 152.878
Site description: The Samford Ecological Research Facility (SERF) is a 51 hectare property located in subtropical Queensland, hosting the South-East Queensland Peri-Urban TERN SuperSite. SERF is situated in a broadly fragmented landscape, shaped by historical cattle grazing, logging and agriculture, and recent residential development. The site protects threatened and endangered ecosystems within a mosaic of remnant native vegetation and cleared pasture.

The site’s two dry acoustic sensors are located in open eucalypt woodland growing on soils derived from weathered granite. These forests are dominated by Pink Bloodwood (Corymbia intermedia), Grey Ironbark (Eucalyptus siderophloia), Swamp Box (Lophostemon suaveolens), and Forest Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis).

SERF’s two wet acoustic sensors are located in notophyll vine forest on alluvial plains. This vegetation community has been heavily cleared over the past 150 years, with SERF protecting one of the few remaining intact examples growing along the banks of Samford Creek. Dominant vine forest species include Native Elm (Aphananthe philippinensis),White Kamala(Mallotus discolor), White Cedar (Melia azedarach), Bunya Pine (Araucaria bidwillii), and Silky Oak (Grevillea robusta).

Both vegetation communities are home to a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate species, many of which are audible and readily detected by acoustic sensors.